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小麦“打喷嚏”传播疾病? 或能据此阻断病菌传播

kira86 于2019-08-19发布 l 已有人浏览
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小麦通过“打喷嚏”传播疾病?科学家或许能通过阻止小麦打喷嚏,找到控制病菌传播的方法。
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Wheat Plants "Sneeze" and Spread Disease

小麦“打喷嚏”并传播疾病

Humans can spread disease by sneezing. But less well known is the wheat plant's ability to do something strangely similar, from its leaves. "It's basically analogous to a human sneeze, in terms of, you have a very fast and sudden expulsion of droplets that contain the disease or pathogen inside of it, and they get thrown away from the surface."

人类会通过打喷嚏传播疾病。但鲜为人知的是,小麦的叶子也会不可思议地做一些类似的事情。“从根本上说,这就像人类打喷嚏一样,小麦叶子表面会迅速、突然地喷出含有疾病或病原体的飞沫。

Jonathan Boreyko, a mechanical engineer at Virginia Tech. He and his team were studying the ability of wheat plants to expel spores of a common pathogen, the wheat rust fungus, from their leaves via this unusual mechanism. So they inoculated wheat plants with the disease, created dew on the plants' leaves, and then studied the ensuing action with high speed microscopy.

乔纳森·波瑞克是弗吉尼亚理工大学的机械工程师。他和他的团队正在研究小麦植株通过这种不寻常的机制将一种常见病原体——小麦锈菌的孢子从叶片中排出的能力。因此,他们给小麦植株接种了这种疾病,在植株的叶子上形成露水,然后用高速显微镜研究了随之而来的“行动”。

Here's what they saw: the leaves are extremely hydrophobic - meaning water beads up to minimize contact with the surface. And when two or more drops touch, energy gets released in the form of a catapulting action, which "sneezes" the droplets into the air, several millimeters above the leaf surface. The droplets can then be picked up by light breezes or simply fall, and spread to other plants. The process is surprisingly effective at launching spores: the researchers figure each leaf can launch 100 spores per hour during a morning dew. The results - and photos of the jumping drops - are in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

他们所观察到的是这样的:小麦叶子是极其疏水(不易被水沾湿的),这就意味着水会形成珠状以尽量减少与叶面的接触。当两滴或两滴以上的水珠接触时,能量以弹射动作的形式释放出来,弹射动作将水滴“打喷嚏喷”到离叶子表面几毫米高的空气中。小水滴可能会被微风吹起,也可能直接飘落下来,然后发射到其它植株上。这个过程在传播袍子方面出奇的有效:研究人员发现,在晨露期间,每片叶子每小时能发射100个孢子。研究结果和跳跃的水滴照片发表在《英国皇家学会界面》杂志上。

Next, Boreyko and his team want to see what happens if they spray stuff on the leaves that changes the way dew forms. "If we change the wettability of the leaves so they're no longer super hydrophobic, now the dew drops will be unable to jump when they grow. They'll just sort of cling to the leaf surface and not be jumping anymore."Such treatment could perhaps put a stop to wheat sneezes, and slow down the transmission of disease.

接下来,波瑞克和他的团队想看看:如果他们在叶子上喷一些能改变露水形成方式的东西,会发生什么情况。“如果三分28改变小麦叶子的润湿性,让它们不再具有超强的疏水性,那么露珠在形成时就无法跳跃。露珠会粘在叶子表面,不再跳跃。”这样的处理也许可以阻止小麦打喷嚏,减缓疾病的传播。

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